Monday, March 18, 2013

TENSES DASAR DALAM BAHASA INGGRIS


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KALIMAT VERBAL : Kalimat yang berpredikat kata kerja


  1. Kalimat Positif
No
Jika dalam bahasa Indonesia predikatnya berbunyi:


Maka bahasa Inggrisnya menggunakan rumus:




Contoh kalimat
Nama tenses
Rumus
waktu
1 sedang melakukan S + to be 1 + Ving sekarang, hari ini, minggu ini, dsb
Aku sedang bekerja sekarang: I am working now.
Dia sedang tidur saat ini: He is sleeping this moment.
Mereka sedang makan di kantin: They are eating in the canteen.


Present Continuous
2 akan melakukan S + will + V1 besok, nanti malam, minggu depan, dsb
Kamu akan menang besok: You will win tomorrow.
Dia akan menemui kamu minggu depan: She will meet you next week.
Saya akan mengerjakan PR ini nanti malam: I will do this homework tonight.


Present Future
3 dulu melakukan S + V2 kemarin, tadi malam, minggu lalu, dsb
Dia menolong aku kemarin: He helped me yesterday.
Aku membunuh seekor ular tadi malam: I killed a snake last night.
Kami membeli lima komputer bulan lalu: We bought five computers last month.


Simple Past
4 telah/sudah melakukan S + have/has + V3 sekarang, hari ini, minggu ini, dsb
Kami telah memperbaiki mobilmu: We have repaired your car.
Mereka sudah meninggalkan aku: They have left me.
Dia sudah mempunyai sebuah rumah baru sekarang: He has had a new house now.


Present Perfect
5
Melakukan
(bukan sedang, bukan akan, bukan dulu, bukan telah)
S + V1

Untuk subjek He, She, It, V1 nya ditambah s/es.
kadang-kadang, sering, setiap hari, setiap pagi, setiap sore, setiap malam, setiap minggu sekarang, hari ini, dsb
Dia menelpon aku setiap minggu: He phones his mother every week.
Dia datang tepat waktu setiap hari: She comes on time every day.
Mereka shalat di tempat ini: They pray in this place every night.


Simple Present


  1. Kalimat Negatif
No
Jika dalam bahasa Indonesia predikatnya berbunyi:


Maka bahasa Inggrisnya menggunakan rumus:


Contoh kalimat Nama tenses
Rumus
Waktu
1 tidak sedang melakukan S + to be 1 + not + Ving sekarang, hari ini, minggu ini, dsb
Aku tidak sedang bekerja sekarang: I am not working now.
Dia tidak sedang tidur saat ini: He is not sleeping this moment.
Mereka tidak sedang makan di kantin: They are not eating in the canteen.


Present Continuous
2 tidak akan melakukan S + will not + V1 besok, nanti malam, minggu depan, dsb
Kamu tidak akan menang besok: You will not win tomorrow.
Dia tidak akan menemui kamu minggu depan: She will not meet you next week.
Saya tidak akan mengerjakan PR ini nanti malam: I will not do this homework tonight.


Present Future
3 dulu tidak melakukan S + did not + V1 kemarin, tadi malam, minggu lalu, dsb
Dia tidak menolong aku kemarin: He did not help me yesterday.
Aku tidak membunuh seekor ular tadi malam: I did not kill a snake last night.
Kami tidak membeli lima komputer bulan lalu: We did not buy five computers last month.


Simple Past
4 belum melakukan S + have/has + not + V3 sekarang, hari ini, minggu ini, dsb
Kami belum memperbaiki komputermu: We have not repaired your car.
Mereka belum meninggalkan aku: They have not left me.
Dia belum mempunyai sebuah rumah baru sekarang: He has not had a new house now.


Present Perfect
5
tidak melakukan
(bukan sedang, bukan akan, bukan dulu, bukan telah)
S + do/does not + V1

Ket: Jika does sudah digunakan, V1 yang bersubjek He, She, It, tidak ditambah s/es lagi.
kadang-kadang, sering, setiap hari, setiap pagi, setiap sore, setiap malam, setiap minggu sekarang, hari ini, dsb
Dia tidak menelpon aku setiap minggu: He does not phone me every week.
Dia tidak datang tepat waktu setiap hari: She does not come on time every day..
Mereka tidak shalat di tempat ini: They do not pray in this place.


Simple Present



  1. Kalimat Tanya

Dalam bahasa Inggris kalimat tanya terbagi menjadi dua:
  1. Kalimat tanya jenis 1 (?1)
Kalimat tanya jenis ini jawabannya selalu yes atau no. Biasanya dalam bahasa Indonesia kalimatnya berbunyi: Apakah………………………….?
Kalimat tanya jenis ini dalam bahasa Inggris ”pasti tidak menggunakan kata tanya (5W-1H)”.
Contoh:
No Kata kunci Rumus Contoh pertanyaan Contoh jawaban Tenses yang digunakan
1. Sedang QW + to be 1 + Ving
Apakah anda sedang bekerja?
Ya / Tidak.


Are you working?
Yes I am / No I am not.
Present Continuous
2. Akan QW + will + S + V1
Apakah mereka akan menyerah?
Ya/ Tidak.


Will they surrender?
Yes they will / No they will not.
Present Future
3. Dulu QW + did + S + V1
Apakah aku mengganggu kamu kemarin?
Ya / Tidak.


Did I disturb you yesterday?
Yes you did / No you did not.
Simple Past
4. telah/sudah QW + have/has + S + V3
Apakah dia sudah tiba?
Ya/Tidak.


Has he come?
Yes he has / No he has not.
Present Perfect
5.
……….
(bukan sedang, bukan akan, bukan dulu, bukan telah/sudah)
QW + do/does + S + V1
Apakah Pak Catur tinggal di Imogiri?
Ya/ Tidak.


Does Mr. Catur live in Imogiri?
Yes he does / No he does not.
Simple Present


  1. Kalimat tanya jenis 2 (?2)
Kalimat tanya jenis ini jawabannya selalu bukan yes atau no.
Kalimat tanya jenis ini selalu menggunakan kata tanya (5W-1H) / Question Word (QW).
Maka dari itu kalimat tanya jenis jawabannya selalu mengacu pada kata tanyanya.


No Kata kunci Rumus Contoh pertanyaan Contoh jawaban Tenses yang digunakan
1. Sedang QW + to be 1 + Ving
What are they doing?
(Apa yang sedang mereka lakukan?
They are praying.)
(Mereka sedang berdoa.)


Present Continuous
2. Akan QW + will + S + V1
How will you go to his house?
(Bagaimana kamu akan pergi ke rumahnya?)


I will go to his house by bike.
(Saya akan pergi ke rumahnya dengan naik sepeda.)


Present Future
3. Dulu QW + did + S + V1
Where did you sleep last night?
(Dimana kamu tidur tadi malam?)
I slept in my grandfather’s house last night.
(Aku tidur di rumah kakekku tadi malam.)


Simple Past
4. telah/sudah QW + have/has + S + V3
Who has he helped?
(Siapa yangsudah dia bantu?)
He has helped my father and my uncle.
(Dia sudah membantu ayahku dan pamanku.


Present Perfect
5.
……….
(bukan sedang, bukan akan, bukan dulu, bukan telah/sudah)
QW + do/does + S + V1
What do you eat every day?
(Apa yang kamu makan setiap hari?)


I eat rice every day.
(Aku makan nasi setiap hari.)
Simple Present






TENSES DASAR
DALAM BAHASA INGGRIS

KALIMAT NOMINAL : Kalimat yang berpredikat bukan kata kerja / Complement (kata sifat, kata benda, kata keterangan)

  1. Kalimat Positif + Negatif
No Jika dalam bahasa Indonesia predikatnya berbunyi:
Maka bahasa Inggrisnya menggunakan rumus:


Contoh kalimat Nama tenses
Rumus
Waktu
1 sedang …..
S + to be 1 + being + C
S + to be 1 + not being + C


sekarang, hari ini, minggu ini, dsb
Aku sedang sakit hari ini: I am being ill today.
Aku tidak sedang sakit hari ini: I am not being ill today.
Present Continuous
2 akan ……
S + will be + C
S + will not be + C
besok, nanti malam, minggu depan, dsb
Dia akan bahagia disini: He will be happy here.
Dia tidak akan bahagia disini: He will not be happy here.


Present Future
3 dulu ……
S + to be 2 + C
S + to be 2 + not + C

To be 2 : was/were
Am/is ---- was
Are ---- were
kemarin, tadi malam, minggu lalu, dsb
Mereka marah kemarin: They were angry yesterday.
Mereka tidak marah kemarin: They were not angry yesterday.


Simple Past
4 telah/sudah ……
S + have/has + been + C
S + have/has + not + been + C


sekarang, hari ini, minggu ini, dsb
Kamu sudah sehat sekarang: You have been healthy now.
Kamu belum sehat sekarang: You have not been healthy now.


Present Perfect
5
……..
(bukan sedang, bukan akan, bukan dulu, bukan telah)
S + to be 1 + C
S + to be 1 + not + C

To be 1: am/is/are
kadang-kadang, sering, setiap hari, setiap pagi, setiap sore, setiap malam, setiap minggu sekarang, hari ini, dsb
Ayahku seorang petani: My father is a farmer.
Ayahku bukan seorang petani: My father is not a farmer.

Mereka kecewa dengan kamu: They are disappointed with you.
Mereka tidak kecewa dengan kamu: They are not disappointed with you.
Simple Present
Keterangan: Rumus Present Continuous Kalimat Nominal yang disebut dalam kolom diatas secara grammar benar namun tidak lazim digunakan. Umumnya dalam hal ini yang digunakan adalah tetap Simple Present saja: S + to be1 + C / S + to be 1 + not + C. Contoh, dari pada mengatakan I am being ill now, sebaiknya mengatakan I am ill now.
  1. Kalimat Tanya 1 & 2
No Jika dalam bahasa Indonesia predikatnya berbunyi:
Maka bahasa Inggrisnya menggunakan rumus:


Contoh kalimat Nama tenses
Rumus
Waktu
1 sedang …..
To be 1 + S + being + C?
QW + to be 1 + S + being + C?



sekarang, hari ini, minggu ini, dsb
Apakah dia sedang marah? : Is she being angry?
Dengan (kpd) siapa dia sedang marah? : Who is he being angry with?
Present Continuous
2 akan ……
Will + S + be + C?
QW + will + S + be + C?
/ QW + will + S + be?
besok, nanti malam, minggu depan, dsb
Apakah aku akan bahagia? : Will I be happy?
Kapan aku akan bahagia? : When will I be happy?
Dimana aku akan berada setelah kematianku? : Where will I be after my death?


Present Future
3 dulu ……
To be 2 + S + C?
QW + to be 2 + S + C?
/ QW + to be 2 + S?



kemarin, tadi malam, minggu lalu, dsb
Apakah mereka nakal kemarin? : Were they naughty yesterday?
Mengapa mereka nakal kemarin? : Why were they naughty yesterday?
Dimana mereka kemarin? : Where were they yesterday?
Simple Past
4 telah/sudah ……
Have/Has + S + been + C?
QW + have/has + not + been + C?
/ QW + have/has + S + been?


sekarang, hari ini, minggu ini, dsb
Apakah mereka sudah lelah? : Have they been tired?
Mengapa mereka sudah lelah? : Why have they been tired?
Where have they been? : Habis dari mana mereka?


Present Perfect
5
……..
(bukan sedang, bukan akan, bukan dulu, bukan telah)
To be 1 + S + C?
QW + to be 1 + S + C?
/ QW + to be 1 + S?



kadang-kadang, sering, setiap hari, setiap pagi, setiap sore, setiap malam, setiap minggu sekarang, hari ini, dsb
Apakah dia seorang pelaut? : Is he a sailor?
Mengapa dia di rumah hari ini? : Why is he at home today?
Siapa dia? : Who is he?



Simple Present



RINGKASAN TEORI
KALIMAT VERBAL
KALIMAT NOMINAL
Simple Present
(+) S + V1
They live in Bantul.
(- ) S + don’t/doesn’t + V1
They don’t live in Bantul.
(?1) Do/does + S + V1?
Do they live in Bantul?
(?2) QW + do/does + S + V1?
Where do they live?
Simple Present
(+) S + to be1 + C
She is angry with you.
(- ) S + to be1 + not + C
She is not angry with you.
(?1) To be2 + S + C?
Is she angry with you?
(?2) QW + to be1 + S + C? / QW + to be1 + S?
Why is she angry with you?
Who is she??

Simple Past
(+) S + V2
He watched a Korean movie last night.
(- ) S + didn’t + V1
He didn’t watch a Korean movie last night.
(?1) Did + S + V1?
Did he watch a Korean movie last night?
(?2) QW + did + S + V1?
What movie did he watch last night?
Simple Past
(+) S + to be2 + C
He was at home yesterday.
(- ) S + to be2 + not + C
He was not at home yesterday.
(?1) To be2 + S + C?
Was he at home yesterday?
(?2) QW + to be2 + S + C? / QW + to be2 + S?
Why was he at home yesterday?
Where was he yesterday?

Present Perfect
(+) S + have/has + V3
She has eaten a plate of porridge.
(- ) S + have/has + not + V3
She has not eaten a plate of porridge.
(?1) Have/has + S + V3
Has she eaten a plate of porridge?
(?2) QW + have/has + S + V3?
What has she eaten?
Present Perfect
(+) S + have/has + been + C
They have been tired.
(- ) S + have/has + not + been + C
They have not been tired.
(?1) Have/has + S + been + C
Have they been tired?
(?2) QW + have/has + S + been + C? /
QW + have/has + S + been
Why have they been tired?
Where have they been?




Present Future
(+) S + will + V1
You will win the match.
(- ) S + will not + V1
You will not win the match.
(?1) Will + S + V1?
Will you win the match?
(?2) QW + will + S + V1?
How will you win the match?
Present Future
(+) S + will be + C
I will be in Solo for one week next month.
(- ) S + will not be + C
I will not be in Solo for one week next month?
(?1) Will + S + be + C?
Will I be in Solo for one week next month?
(?2) QW + will + S + be + C? / QW + will + S + be?
How long will I be in Solo next month?
Where will I be next month?



Present Continuous
(+) S + to be1 + Ving
Yusuf is reading a chemistry book.
(- ) S + to be1 + not + Ving
Yusuf is not reading a chemistry book.
(?1) To be1 + S + Ving
Is Yusuf reading a chemistry book?
(?2) QW + to be1 + Ving?
What is Yusuf reading?
Present Continuous
(+) S + to be1 + being + Ving
She is being angry with Tono.
(- ) S + to be1 + not + being + Ving
She is not being angry with Tono.
(?1) To be1 + S + being + Ving
Is she being angry with Tono?
(?2) QW + to be1 + being + Ving?
Who is she being angry with?

Modal (can, must, may, should)
(+) S + modal + V1
They can speak English.
(- ) S + modal + not + V1
They cannot speak English.
(?1) Modal + S + V1?
Can they speak English?
(?2) QW + modal + S + V1?
What foreign language can they speak?
Modal (can, must, may, should)
(+) S + modal + be + C
You must be quiet.
(- ) S + modal + not + be + C
You must not (jangan) quiet.
(?1) Modal + S + be + C?
Must they be quiet?
(?2) QW + modal + S + be + C?
Why must they be quiet?

Keterangan:
Semua rumus di atas akan sangat bermanfaat bagi bahasa Inggris anda jika anda mau mempelajarinya dengan baik. Selalulah latihan membuat kalimat sampai anda anda benar-benar mahir. Selamat belajar. Semoga tulisan ini ada manfaatnya!

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